Sat, 14 Aug 1999 18:12:10 -0700
At 11:27 8/14/1999 -0400, you wrote:
>On Fri, 13 Aug 1999, -Z- wrote:
>> One can be a Muslim and not be an Arab -- Islam is a religion, not an
>> ethnicity or nationality.
>Oops, my mistake, I was thinking of the Lawrence of Arabia era. I forgot
>the Philipines weren't always Catholic, duh!
Weren't always and aren't all now. The last time I looked, it was 83%
Roman Catholic, 9% Protestant, 5% Muslim and 3% Buddhist, with a few
practitioners of "local" religions (i.e., the beliefs of the "native" Malay
tribes prior to the arrival of Magellan). The ethnic breakdown is 91.5%
Christian Malay, 4% Muslim Malay, 1.5% Chinese and 3% other.
>Thanks for the history lesson. I never quite think of the Americans as
Sadly, most Americans are unaware of their Yankee Imperialist history,
either. They forget that Alaska and Hawaii were added in 1949, after WW2
-- Hawaii was not a state when Pearl Harbor was bombed, just a protectorate
The nationalist movement in the Philippines began even before the Spanish
American War, led by a man named José Rizal. Emilio Aguinaldo led an armed
uprising in 1896. The 1898 victory of Admiral George Dewey ("Dewey Takes
Manila!") led Spain to cede the Philippines to the U.S. in return for a
payment of $20 million. America also got Puerto Rico and Guam and Cuba was
granted its independence. The Philippines expected immediate independence
as well and, when it was not forthcoming, Aguinaldo declared himself
president of the Republic of the Philippines. The U.S. refused to
recognize the republic and a new war of independence ensued, which was
suppressed by American troops from 1899 to 1905.
American policy in the Philippines combined military control with a desire
to encourage home rule leading to independence -- Americans do not like to
govern, but they do like to control the economy. In 1935, the Commonwealth
of the Philippines was established, with Manuel Quezon as its first
president. The idea was a 10-year period of "controlled autonomy" leading
to full independence on 4 July 1946. Quezon was re-elected in November
1941, only to have the whole country yanked out from under him by the
Japanese a few months later.
The Philippines were "liberated" by the Amricans in July 1945 and Manuel
Roxas was elected president of the Commonwealth in April 1946 and
independence came as scheduled in July, with the U.S. retaining its
military bases and a "special economic relationship" that was opposed by
the leftist Hukbalahap, who had formerly waged a guerilla rebellion against
the Japanese. The Hukbalahap Rebellion was ended by a military campaign
led by Ramon Magsaysay, who was elected president of the Republic in
November 1953. (This should put certain characters and events of Robert A.
Heinlein's STARSHIP TROOPERS into historical perspective!)
The relationship of America and the Philippines reflects some aspects of
the Federation and its colonies, which was not colonialism in the British
Imperial sense. Even after the One Year War, the Federation dominance of
the colonies was more economic than military until the Titans came on the
scene. The space colonies were considered a part of the Federation, as the
protectorates and territories were part of American, but neither had a
voice in policy and both were represented by appointed officials, whose
interests were thus conflicted.
Bet you didn't think I could steer this beast back on topic…?
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